Parenting Skills and Behaviors

Several studies have found that warm, nurturing and responsive parenting behaviors, as well as positive discipline techniques, lead to better outcomes for young children. Home environments that encourage exploration and learning contribute to a child’s early cognitive, language and social-emotional development as well as school readiness, school achievement, and control of aggressive behavior later on (Chazen-Cohen, 2009). Furthermore, research shows that supportive parenting that incorporates a combination of sensitivity, positivity, and cognitive stimulation at 14-months is associated with better emotion regulation, higher vocabulary scores, and greater letter-word knowledge (Chazen-Cohen, 2009). 



Work Cited

Chazan-Cohen, R. et al. (2009). Low-Income children’s School Readiness: Parent contributions over the first five years. Early Education and Development, 20(6), 958-977.

Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Burchinal, M. (2006). Mother and caregiver sensitivity over time: Predicting language and academic outcomes with variable-and person centered approaches. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52, 449-485. 

Landry, S.H., Smith, K.E., Miller-Loncar, C.L., & Swank, P.R. (1998). The relation of change in maternal interactive styles to the developing social competence of full-term and preterm children. Child Development, 69, 105-123. 

Taylor, H.B., Anthony, J.L., Aghara, R., Smith, K.E. & Landry, S.H. (2008). The interaction of early maternal responsiveness and children’s cognitive abilities on later decoding and reading comprehensive skills. Early Education and Development, 19, 188-207. 

Parents as Teachers

The Incredible Years

Zero to Three

Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)