Feelings of Belonging/School Connectedness

School connectedness, or a sense of belonging to the school environment, is a factor for child and adolescent health, education, and social well-being. Students that develop a sense of belonging often participate in academic and non-academic activities at school, have good relations with teachers and other students, and they are more likely to identify with and value schooling outcomes.

At the individual level, success can be measured by setting a benchmark for the level of feelings of belonging thought sufficient (e.g., a score on a questionnaire). At the program level, assessing success may be done by comparing responses at program intake, at later intervals, and/or at exit. It is also meaningful to compare results for the current cohort with those of previous cohorts.

By Urban Institute

Surveys / Assessments


Sources Cited

Goodenow, C. and Grady, K. E. (1993). The relationship of school belonging and friends= values to academic motivation among adolescent students. Journal of Experimental Education 62(1): 60–71.

Johnson, M. K., Crosnoe, R. and Elder, G. H. (2001). Students’ attachment and academic engagement: The role of race and ethnicity. Sociology of Education 74: 318–40.