Parenting Practices Inventory (PPI)

Please note that this tool is proprietary and may only be obtained by contacting the creators of the tool below. PerformWell cannot make this tool available in ETO.

The Parent Practices Interview (PPI) is an 72-item questionnaire adapted from the Oregon Social Learning Center’s Discipline Questionnaire and revised for young children. This measure may be used to assess the disciplinary style of a parent or caregiver, to identify parents/caregivers who may be in need of further evaluation, or as an indicator of change in disciplinary practices during or following intervention.  It can be administered as an interview or a self-report questionnaire completed by the child’s parent or primary caregiver(s) and is composed of seven subscales—Harsh Discipline (14 items), Harsh for Age (9 items), Inconsistent Discipline (6 items), Appropriate Discipline (16 items), Positive Parenting (15 items), Clear Expectations (3 items), and Monitoring (9 items)—rated on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (never) to 7 (always). 

Order/Contact Information:   Incredible Years, 1411 8th Ave West Seattle, WA, 98119.

Phone: 1-888-506-3562 or 1-206-285-7565           Fax: 1-888-506-3562.

E-mail: [email protected]

Number of Questions
Creator(s) of Tool
© 2015 The Incredible Years®, Inc. All rights reserved. "THE INCREDIBLE YEARS®" and all related trademarks are owned by The Incredible Years®, Inc. USA. Limited use of trademarks and copyrighted material is by license from The Incredible Years®, Inc. All program materials must be ordered through
Scoring / Benchmarking
Before computing summary scales, convert all items to 7-point scales so that all the items in each scale has the same range of values. Items with 5-point scales (4a to 4e, 14a to 14c) are recoded as (1=1)(2=2)(3=4)(4=6)(5=7). Items with 8-point scales (12 & 13) are recoded as (1=1)(2=2)(3=3)(4,5=4)(6=5)(7=6)(8=7). For items 8a & 8b, the value of 8 is recoded to missing. Scales are then reversed for selected items (4a,4b,5b,9a,9b,9e,9f,12,13,15b,15c). Summary scales aree computed as the average of the component items, so that the range of values for the summary scales is 1 to 7. Items not included in any acale include 1a,2a,3a,4c,4d,4e,6a,6g.
Background / Quality
The PPI has bee used in several studies to include an evaluation of The Incredible Years parent and classroom intervention in elementary schools (Reid et al, 2007) and a study of the effectiveness of parent and teacher training for Head Start mothers and their 4 year old children and Head Start teachers (Webster-Stratton et al, 2001). The internal consistency is adequate.
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