Parent Choice of Involvement Activities

The measure is reported in Walker, Wilkins, Dallaire, Sandler and Hoover-Dempsey (2005) and in Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler (2005). It was adapted from work by Epstein and Salinas (1993) and by Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones & Reed (2002). The measure is divided into two scales, Child-Specific Involvement and School-General Involvement. Overall, it assesses parents’ choice of involvement activities or forms in children’s education.


Administration Method
Number of Questions
Creator(s) of Tool
Epstein, J.L., & Salinas, K.C. (1993). School and family partnerships: Surveys and summaries. Baltimore, MD: Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning, Johns Hopkins University.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Walker, J.M.T., Jones, K.P., & Reed, R.P. (2002). Teachers Involving Parents (TIP): An in-service teacher education program for enhancing parental involvement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18 (7), 1-25.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (2005). Final Performance Report for OERI Grant # R305T010673: The Social Context of Parental Involvement: A Path to Enhanced Achievement. Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005.

Walker, J. M. T., Wilkins, A. S., Dallaire, J. P., Sandler, H. M., &
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2005). Parental involvement: Model revision through scale development. Elementary School Journal, 106(2); 85-104.
Scoring / Benchmarking
Response format and scale
The measure employs a six-point, Likert-type frequency scale: 1=Never, 2=1 or 2 times this year, 3=4 or 5 times this year, 4=Once a week, 5=A few times a week, 6=Daily. Scores are summed and total scale scores range from 10 to 60. Higher scores indicate greater parent involvement in a child's care and education activities.
Background / Quality
Alpha reliability for the two scales as reported in Walker et al. (2005) and Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler (2005) was .85 for the Child-Specific Involvement scale and .82 for the School-General scale.
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