Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI)

The AAPI-2 is an inventory designed to assess the parenting and child rearing attitudes of adolescents and adult parent and pre-parent populations. Based on the known parenting and child rearing behaviors of abusive parents, responses to the inventory provide an index of risk for practicing behaviors known to be attributable to child abuse and neglect. 

Responses to the AAPI-2 provide an index of risk in five specific parenting and child rearing behaviors. The sub-scales are:

Construct A - Expectations of Children
Construct B - Parental Empathy towards Children’s Needs
Construct C - Use of Corporal Punishment
Construct D - Parent-Child Family Roles
Construct E - Children’s Power and Independence

Respondents take on an average 10 to 15 minutes to complete the inventory. The AAPI-2 has an assessed fifth grade reading level. Parents who are unable or have difficulty reading the items can have the items read to them.

In measuring the effectiveness of a program in changing long standing parenting habits and beliefs, assessment is most often designed to gather information at the beginning and end of the program. It is important to use inventory assessment that has pretest and posttest versions which allow measurement of change without the bias of the practice effect. The AAPI-2 contains two forms (A and B) with the same constructs so as to minimize practice effects when there is a short duration of time between pre and post testing.  Traditionally Form A is offered as pretest and Form B as a posttest.

Reproducing any parts of the APPI-2 is not permissible without written consent from the developer. 

To access the AAPI Online, users must first establish an account. To establish a new account, e-mail Family Development Resources, [email protected] or call 800.688.5822 (within the U.S.) or 435.649.5822 (international inquiries).


Number of Questions
Creator(s) of Tool
Developers: Bavolek, S. J. and Keene, R. G.

Bavolek, S. J., & Keene, R. G. (2001). Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory AAPI-2: Administration and development handbook. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources, Inc.
Scoring / Benchmarking
There are two forms of the AAPI-2: Form A and Form B. Each form has 40 items presented on a five point Likert Scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree and Uncertain. Responses are converted to stem scores that compare the participant’s responses to a normal distribution and determine if responses indicate high, average, or low risk for maltreatment of children. Higher scores are indicative of negative parenting attitudes.
Background / Quality
Each of the five parenting constructs of the AAPI-2, forming the five sub-scales of the inventory, show significant diagnostic and discriminatory validity. That is, responses to the inventory discriminate between the parenting behaviors of known abusive parents and the behaviors of non-abusive parents. These findings hold true for abused adolescents and non-abused adolescents.

The AAPI-2 has been translated into Spanish, Creole, and Arabic.

The AAPI-2, like its predecessor the AAPI is a validated and reliable inventory used to assess parenting attitudes. Over 30 years of research has gone into refining the AAPI. Widespread Use/Professional Endorsements: The original AAPI was developed in 1979. The AAPI-2 has been used for almost a decade to evaluate the Nurturing Parenting program. Dr. Bavolek is an internationally recognized professional in the fields of Parenting Education and Child Abuse and Neglect Treatment and Prevention. He is the founder and president of Family Development Resources, Inc., a North Carolina business, was established in 1983 to develop and distribute valid and reliable inventories and programs to identify and help families who are experiencing the abuse and neglect of their children. Dr. Bavolek is also founder and CEO of the Family Nurturing Centers, Inc. International, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to the mission of empowering communities throughout the world to help families experience the success of living a life free from physical, verbal and emotional abuse and neglect.
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