PACE Adolescent Psychosocial and Stage-of-Change Measures Related to Sedentary Behavior

PACE research began in 1990 with a small contract from the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention to develop tools to help primary care physicians counsel their patients on becoming more physically active. It has now grown to encompass a broad array of research aimed at developing tools that health care providers, health care systems and individuals can use to make initial and sustained improvements in physical activity, diet and other lifestyle behaviors.     

This questionnaire assesses an individual's level or "stage" of sedentary behavior. There are five stages, pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance.  Pros and cons of sedentary behavior, confidence, adolescents completed measures of behavior change strategies, self-efficacy, family and peer influences, enjoyment, activity choices, and environmental influences related to sedentary habits.

See also Stages-of-Change Measures Related to Physical Activity.


Administration Method
Number of Questions
Creator(s) of Tool
Norman GJ, Sallis JF, Gaskins R. Comparability and reliability of paper- and computer-based measures of psychosocial constructs for adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2005;76(3):315-323.

2001, San Diego State University.
Scoring / Benchmarking
This questionnaire assesses a variety of items individaully (stage of change, change habits, etc.) corresponding to the section headings in the instrument.

Stage of Change
NO, and I do NOT intend to in the next six months = Pre-contemplation
NO, but I intend to in the next six months = Contemplation
NO, but I intend to in the next 30 days = Preparation
YES, and I have been, but for LESS than 6 months = Action
YES, and I have been for MORE than 6 months = Maintenance

Sedentary Habits Change Strategies
Create a composite strategy score by computing the mean of items 1 to 15. (never = 1, almost never = 2, sometimes = 3, often = 4, many times = 5)

Sedentary Habits Pros & Cons
Pros of change scale = mean of items 1, 3, 4, 9.
Cons of change scale = mean of items 2, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12.
Note: Item 7 did not load on either factor (Norman et al., 2004).

Sedentary Habits Confidence (Self-Efficacy)
Compute mean of items 1 to 7.

Sedentary Habits Family Support (Family Influences)
Compute mean of items 1 to 4.

Sedentary Habits Friend Support (Peer Influences)
Reverse code item 3, then compute mean of items 1 to 3
Is there a cost associated with this tool?
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